Iranians across the country and Shia Muslims throughout the world observe the mourning ceremony of the martyrdom of the Second Infallible Imam of Household of Holy Prophet and Grandson of Holy Prophet Muhammad (S), Imam Hassan al-Mujtaba (PBUH).
A Glance at Sublime Life of Imam Hassan al-Mujtaba (PBUH)
Imam Hassan, the 2nd Holy Imam of the Shia Muslims and the leader of the youth in Heaven was born in the holy city of Medina on the 15th Ramadan in the third year after Hijri.
Title: al-Mujtaba (The Chosen One)
Kuniyat: Abu Muhammad
Father: Imam Ali (A)
Mother: Bibi Fatima Zahra (PBUH)
Birthdate: 15th of Ramadhan 3 A.H. in Medina
Imamate: From 40 A.H. to 50 A.H.
Martyrdom: 28th Safar 50 A.H.
Buried: Medina, Saudi Arabia.
In human perfection, Imam Hassan al-Mujtaba (PBUH) was reminiscent of his father and a perfect example of his noble grandfather. In fact, as long as the Prophet was alive, he and his brother were always in the company of the Prophet Muhammad (S) who even sometimes would carry them on his shoulders. Both Sunni and Shiite sources have transmitted this saying of the Holy Prophet (S) concerning Hassan and Hussein (PBUH), “These two children of mine are Imams whether they stand up or sit down” (an allusion to whether they occupy the external function of caliphate or not). Also there are many traditions of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (S) and ‘Alī concerning the fact that Imam Hassan would gain the function of imamate after his noble father.
Imam Hassan al-Mujtaba (PBUH) was well-known for spiritual wayfaring; he had also gone on pilgrimage 25 times by walking all the way from Medina to Mecca.
Imam Hassan al-Mujtaba (PBUH) was also known for his generosity. On hearing a man praying by the Kaaba to Allāh for relieving him of a 10,000-dirham debt, the Imam went home, returned with that money, and gave it to that person. Three times in his life, the Imam divided his entire property and possessions and gave away one half in charity.
No one was more like the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless Him and his family, than Al-Hasan b. ‘Ali, Peace Be on Him, in form manner, and nobility.
Imam Hassan al-Mujtaba (PBUH) spent the first seven years of his life under the care and guidance of his grandfather, the Holy Prophet (S). This early training made Imam Hassan al-Mujtaba (BPUH) outstanding in his knowledge, piety, tolerance, intelligence and courage.
Imam Hassan (PBUH) and his brother Imam Hussein (PBUH) were very dear to the Holy Prophet (S). He used to carry them on his shoulders and once told the people, “Hasan and Hussein are the leaders of the youth of Paradise.”
Hazrat Fatemeh (PBUH) once brought her two sons to her father and said, “O’ Apostle of Allah, these are your two grandsons. Give them something as an inheritance.” The Holy Prophet (S) replied, “Hassan shall have my form and my nobility and Hussein shall have my generosity and bravery.”
As a child, Imam Hassan (PBUH) used to listen attentively to the verses of the Holy Quran as they were revealed. To the surprise of the Holy Prophet (S), his daughter Hazrat Fatemeh (PBUH) would often recite the exact text of a newly revealed verse before he personally told her about it. When he asked her how she knew, she informed him that Imam Hassan al-Mujtaba (PBUH) had already taught her the verse when he heard the Holy Prophet (S) recite it in the mosque in front of the people.
He was quite wealthy and could have lived in luxury if he desired, but he preferred to spend his money to help the poor and needy. Twice in his life, he gave away his entire wealth in charity and began all over again.
Once a stranger arrived in Kufa and asked a man working in a garden for directions. The man showed him the way and then invited him to share his meal. The stranger was touched by this offer and accepted. But when he was handed some flat bread to eat, he found that it was so hard that he could not even break it on his knee, let alone with his teeth. He tried dipping it into some water but that did not help. The gardener saw the stranger’s discomfort and pointed him towards a guest house where free meals were given to all.
Martyrdom of Imam Hassan al-Mujtaba (PBUH)
In the year 50, A.H. Imam Hassan bin ‘Ali (Peace Be Upon Him) was poisoned and martyred by one of his own wives who, as has been accounted by historians, had been motivated by Mu’āwiyah. The latter did not want the caliphate to return back to ‘Ali’s family; he wanted to remove all the obstacles from the way of his own son, Yazid to inherit the kingdom. The Umayyids, against all the high principles of Islam and humanity, forcefully and violently barred the Banu Hashim from burying Imam Hasan next to his grandfather’s grave. He was finally buried in Jannatu ‘l-Baqi’.
Imam Hassan’s patience and forbearance are even acknowledged by his enemies. Marwan bin Hakam, Mu’awiyah’s governor in Medina who always persecuted the Imam, participated in the latter’s funeral. Imam Hussein said, “While my brother was alive, you tried your best to oppose him and fight against him; and now you are showing up in his funeral!” Marwan said, “Whatever I did, I did to a person whose forbearance was stronger than this mountain” while pointing towards a mountain outside Medina.
As mentioned in above, one of the Holy Imam’s (PBUH) wives was Ju’da binte Ash’ath bin Qays. Muawiya conspired with Ju’da to give Imam Hassan (PBUH) some poison. In return, she would get 100,000 dirhams and he would marry her to Yazid. This evil woman put poison in Imam Hassan’s (PBUH) drinking water and he immediately fell gravely ill as a result. After great suffering, the Holy Imam (PBUH) departed from this world. Just before he died, he entrusted the affairs of the Imamate to his brother Imam Hussein (PBUH) and made him the guardian of his own family.
Imam Hassan al-Mujtaba (PBUH) had stated that before he was buried in Jannatul Baqee, his body should be taken to the grave of the Holy Prophet (S) for a final visit. When Bani Hashim attempted to carry out the last wishes of Imam Hassan (PBUH), they were stopped by Ayesha and members of Bani Umayyah, who thought that they wished to bury him next to his grandfather. Imam Hussein (PBUH) did not want bloodshed so he directed that the body be taken straight to Jannatul Baqee, where Imam Hassan (PBUH) was buried next to his grandmother Hazrat Fatemeh (PBUH). He was 48 years old when he was martyred.